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The Alien Whisperer: Jill Tarter On 38 Years Of Hunting For D.T.

2014-09-04 18:42:52 mega-man
Jill Tarter,
co-founding father of the SETI Institute and previously the senior scientist for the Allen Telescope Array (pictured)—the one radio telescope devoted to the seek for extraterrestrial life.
Brad Wenner

In the seek for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), individuals sometimes search messages, not ship them. Think Jodie Foster within the film Contact as an alien sign pulses in her headphones. The inspiration for Foster’s character, astrophysicist Jill Tarter, needs to assist make future people the sort of talkative interstellar society she has spent the previous 38 years looking for. 

Popular Science: Why seek for alien broadcasts if we’re not sending them ourselves?

Jill Tarter: Given the historical past of the galaxy, statistically, any civilization that we might talk with goes to be a lot older. And since transmitting is more durable than listening, we put the onus on them.

PS: What about the messages we despatched on Voyager M and a couple of?

JT: Those are like messages in a bottle. If you’re critical about sending a transmission that has any probability of being acquired, you need to ship out a billion bottles. You have to transmit constantly—not only for a yr or a decade. Right now we’re not excellent at making 10,000-yr plans, however I undoubtedly assume transmitting is in our lengthy-time period future.

PS: If we’re ultimately capable of broadcast, what ought to we are saying?

JT: Humans, as a species, have to determine. There’s now a undertaking to crowdsource a self-portrait of Earth to ship to the New Horizons spacecraft, which is headed for Pluto after which out of our photo voltaic system. At this level, we’re asking individuals to submit only one phrase. “Curiosity” and “hope” are prevalent, however “worry” and “conflict” are there as properly. One of probably the most fascinating questions is whether or not the gang will inform the reality—how a lot of our darkish aspect we’ll embrace.

PS: What do you consider sending precise dwelling beings outdoors the photo voltaic system?

JT: I can envision sensible, small probes with the ability to do superb exploration. I don’t find out about organic area journey. But that’s exactly why I signed on to the 100-Year Starship project, which goals to make journey past our photo voltaic system a actuality inside the subsequent century.

PS: Is that real looking?

JT: I take science-fiction writer Arthur M. Clarke’s second regulation critically: “The solely means of discovering the bounds of the potential is to enterprise slightly well beyond them into the unattainable.” 

This article initially appeared within the September 2014 concern of Popular Science.




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The Alien Whisperer: Jill Tarter On 38 Years Of Hunting For D.T.

2014-09-04 18:42:51 mega-man
Jill Tarter,
co-founding father of the SETI Institute and previously the senior scientist for the Allen Telescope Array (pictured)—the one radio telescope devoted to the seek for extraterrestrial life.
Brad Wenner

In the seek for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), individuals sometimes search messages, not ship them. Think Jodie Foster within the film Contact as an alien sign pulses in her headphones. The inspiration for Foster’s character, astrophysicist Jill Tarter, needs to assist make future people the sort of talkative interstellar society she has spent the previous 38 years looking for. 

Popular Science: Why seek for alien broadcasts if we’re not sending them ourselves?

Jill Tarter: Given the historical past of the galaxy, statistically, any civilization that we might talk with goes to be a lot older. And since transmitting is more durable than listening, we put the onus on them.

PS: What about the messages we despatched on Voyager M and a couple of?

JT: Those are like messages in a bottle. If you’re critical about sending a transmission that has any probability of being acquired, you need to ship out a billion bottles. You have to transmit constantly—not only for a yr or a decade. Right now we’re not excellent at making 10,000-yr plans, however I undoubtedly assume transmitting is in our lengthy-time period future.

PS: If we’re ultimately capable of broadcast, what ought to we are saying?

JT: Humans, as a species, have to determine. There’s now a undertaking to crowdsource a self-portrait of Earth to ship to the New Horizons spacecraft, which is headed for Pluto after which out of our photo voltaic system. At this level, we’re asking individuals to submit only one phrase. “Curiosity” and “hope” are prevalent, however “worry” and “conflict” are there as properly. One of probably the most fascinating questions is whether or not the gang will inform the reality—how a lot of our darkish aspect we’ll embrace.

PS: What do you consider sending precise dwelling beings outdoors the photo voltaic system?

JT: I can envision sensible, small probes with the ability to do superb exploration. I don’t find out about organic area journey. But that’s exactly why I signed on to the 100-Year Starship project, which goals to make journey past our photo voltaic system a actuality inside the subsequent century.

PS: Is that real looking?

JT: I take science-fiction writer Arthur M. Clarke’s second regulation critically: “The solely means of discovering the bounds of the potential is to enterprise slightly well beyond them into the unattainable.” 

This article initially appeared within the September 2014 concern of Popular Science.




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The Alien Whisperer: Jill Tarter On 38 Years Of Hunting For W.T.

2014-09-04 06:32:59 mega-man
Jill Tarter,
co-founding father of the SETI Institute and previously the senior scientist for the Allen Telescope Array (pictured)—the one radio telescope devoted to the seek for extraterrestrial life.
Brad Wenner

In the seek for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), individuals sometimes search messages, not ship them. Think Jodie Foster within the film Contact as an alien sign pulses in her headphones. The inspiration for Foster’s character, astrophysicist Jill Tarter, needs to assist make future people the sort of talkative interstellar society she has spent the previous 38 years looking for. 

Popular Science: Why seek for alien broadcasts if we’re not sending them ourselves?

Jill Tarter: Given the historical past of the galaxy, statistically, any civilization that we might talk with goes to be a lot older. And since transmitting is more durable than listening, we put the onus on them.

PS: What about the messages we despatched on Voyager B and a couple of?

JT: Those are like messages in a bottle. If you’re critical about sending a transmission that has any probability of being acquired, you need to ship out a billion bottles. You have to transmit constantly—not only for a yr or a decade. Right now we’re not excellent at making 10,000-yr plans, however I undoubtedly assume transmitting is in our lengthy-time period future.

PS: If we’re ultimately capable of broadcast, what ought to we are saying?

JT: Humans, as a species, have to determine. There’s now a challenge to crowdsource a self-portrait of Earth to ship to the New Horizons spacecraft, which is headed for Pluto after which out of our photo voltaic system. At this level, we’re asking individuals to submit only one phrase. “Curiosity” and “hope” are prevalent, however “worry” and “conflict” are there as nicely. One of probably the most fascinating questions is whether or not the gang will inform the reality—how a lot of our darkish aspect we’ll embrace.

PS: What do you consider sending precise dwelling beings outdoors the photo voltaic system?

JT: I can envision sensible, small probes with the ability to do superb exploration. I don’t find out about organic area journey. But that’s exactly why I signed on to the 100-Year Starship project, which goals to make journey past our photo voltaic system a actuality inside the subsequent century.

PS: Is that lifelike?

JT: I take science-fiction writer Arthur H. Clarke’s second regulation critically: “The solely method of discovering the bounds of the attainable is to enterprise slightly well beyond them into the inconceivable.” 

This article initially appeared within the September 2014 problem of Popular Science.




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Scientists Send Messages Directly From One Brain To Another

2014-09-04 06:32:50 mega-man
photo of a man wearing a blindfold in a transcranial magnetic stimulation machine
Receiving a Brain Message
Carles Grau et al., PLOS One, 2014. CC BY 2.5

So a staff of neuroscientists despatched a message from the mind of 1 individual in India, to the brains of three individuals in France, utilizing brainwave-studying gear and the Internet. Yes, actually.

The course of is sluggish and cumbersome. It additionally does not make use of any bleeding-edge know-how. Instead, it places collectively neurorobotics software program and hardware which were developed by a number of labs in recent times. We’re not predicting that it will have sensible purposes, or society-altering implications, any time quickly. Still, it is fairly amusing that any person did this, and we’re right here to provide the step-by-step directions on how.

To wit:

  1. The emitter—we’re utilizing the vocab and italics from the original paper as a result of they’re superior—wears an EEG cap on her scalp that data the electrical exercise in her mind. The cap communicates wirelessly with a laptop computer that exhibits, on its display, a white circle on a black background.

  2. The emitter interprets the message she needs to ship into an obscure 5-bit binary system referred to as Bacon’s cipher, which is extra compact than the binary code that computer systems use.

  3. The emitter now has to enter that binary string into the laptop computer utilizing her ideas. She does this through the use of her ideas to maneuver the white circle on-display to totally different corners of the display. (Upper proper nook for “M,” backside proper nook for “zero.”) This a part of the method takes benefit of know-how that a number of labs have developed, to permit individuals with paralysis to control computer cursors or robotic arms.

  4. The emitter‘s binary message will get despatched over the Internet, yay.

  5. The receivers sit inside a transcranial magnetic stimulation machine that is capable of ship electromagnetic pulses by means of individuals’s skulls. The pulses make the receivers see flashes of sunshine of their peripheral imaginative and prescient that are not truly there. In addition, the machine has a robotic arm that is capable of purpose at totally different locations on the receivers‘ skulls. The outcomes are phantom flashes (referred to as phosphenes) that appear to point out up in several positions within the air, which isn’t spooky in any respect, no.

  6. As quickly because the receivers‘ machine will get the emitter‘s binary message over the Internet, the machine will get to work. It strikes its robotic arm round, sending phosphenes to the receivers at totally different positions on their skulls. Flashes showing in a single place correspond to 1s within the emitter‘s message, whereas flashes showing in one other place correspond to 0s.

  7. We do not understand how the receivers hold monitor of all that flashing. Perhaps they take notes utilizing a pen and paper.

Whew, that is numerous work to provide your mates a holler. The analysis group, together with neuroscientists and engineers from universities and startups in Europe and the D.R., understandably despatched solely two messages on this method: “hola” and “ciao.” Imagine making an attempt to ship “bonjour” or “good morning.”

The group revealed its work in August within the journal PLOS One. It is there you’ll find this tremendous-superb graphic of the experimental setup:

graphic showing an emitter and a receiver in the brain-to-brain setup
Brain-to-Brain Messaging Setup
Carles Grau et al., PLOS One, 2014. CC BY 2.5. Click here to see the image larger.




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German Boars Are Too Radioactive To Eat

2014-09-04 06:32:46 mega-man
Wild Boar

In Germany, boar meat is taken into account a delicacy, consumed in numerous types comparable to salami and boar leg. But now, German restaurant-goers might need to rethink ordering boar the subsequent time they dine out (and it’s not due to boar taint).

According to the Telegraph, current testing within the state of Saxony has revealed that multiple-in-three wild boar in Germany are so radioactive that they are thought-about unfit for human consumption. Boar carcasses usually are not presupposed to exceed radiation ranges of 600 becquerels per kilogram, however prior to now yr, 297 out of 752 boar examined in Saxony have su this protected quantity. Some boars have even examined dozens of occasions over.

The illuminating development is considered a lingering impact of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, one of many worst nuclear energy plant accidents in historical past. More than 28 years in the past, a reactor exploded on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Soviet-run Ukraine, releasing radioactive particles into the environment. The contamination was so widespread that specialists have estimated between 4,000 and 93,000 extra cancer deaths have occurred because of Chernobyl, although the precise tally might by no means be recognized.

Saxony is roughly seven hundred miles away from the Chernobyl website, however numerous climate circumstances helped the radioactive particles unfold far into Western Europe, contaminating a lot of the bottom soil. And, since wild boar dig by way of soil for meals, they’re notably affected by this contamination. They additionally eat underground mushrooms and deer truffles, that are recognized to retailer radiation.

Apparently, researchers have been cataloguing this pattern of boar radioactivity for a while, they usually don’t consider it’ll go away any time quickly. Experts predict it might be one other 50 years earlier than boar radiation ranges return to regular, the Telegraph notes.

In the meantime, Germans ought to hold an eye fixed out for any boars exhibiting tremendous powers.




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The Alien Whisperer: Jill Tarter On 38 Years Of Hunting For W.T.

2014-09-03 18:32:54 mega-man
Jill Tarter,
co-founding father of the SETI Institute and previously the senior scientist for the Allen Telescope Array (pictured)—the one radio telescope devoted to the seek for extraterrestrial life.
Brad Wenner

In the seek for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), individuals sometimes search messages, not ship them. Think Jodie Foster within the film Contact as an alien sign pulses in her headphones. The inspiration for Foster’s character, astrophysicist Jill Tarter, needs to assist make future people the type of talkative interstellar society she has spent the previous 38 years looking for. 

Popular Science: Why seek for alien broadcasts if we’re not sending them ourselves?

Jill Tarter: Given the historical past of the galaxy, statistically, any civilization that we might talk with goes to be a lot older. And since transmitting is more durable than listening, we put the onus on them.

PS: What about the messages we despatched on Voyager M and a couple of?

JT: Those are like messages in a bottle. If you’re critical about sending a transmission that has any probability of being acquired, you need to ship out a billion bottles. You have to transmit constantly—not only for a yr or a decade. Right now we’re not excellent at making 10,000-yr plans, however I undoubtedly assume transmitting is in our lengthy-time period future.

PS: If we’re ultimately capable of broadcast, what ought to we are saying?

JT: Humans, as a species, have to determine. There’s now a challenge to crowdsource a self-portrait of Earth to ship to the New Horizons spacecraft, which is headed for Pluto after which out of our photo voltaic system. At this level, we’re asking individuals to submit only one phrase. “Curiosity” and “hope” are prevalent, however “worry” and “struggle” are there as nicely. One of probably the most fascinating questions is whether or not the gang will inform the reality—how a lot of our darkish aspect we’ll embrace.

PS: What do you consider sending precise dwelling beings outdoors the photo voltaic system?

JT: I can envision sensible, small probes with the ability to do superb exploration. I don’t find out about organic area journey. But that’s exactly why I signed on to the 100-Year Starship project, which goals to make journey past our photo voltaic system a actuality inside the subsequent century.

PS: Is that sensible?

JT: I take science-fiction writer Arthur H. Clarke’s second regulation significantly: “The solely approach of discovering the bounds of the potential is to enterprise somewhat well beyond them into the unattainable.” 

This article initially appeared within the September 2014 problem of Popular Science.




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The Alien Whisperer: Jill Tarter On 38 Years Of Hunting For D.T.

2014-09-03 18:32:54 mega-man
Jill Tarter,
co-founding father of the SETI Institute and previously the senior scientist for the Allen Telescope Array (pictured)—the one radio telescope devoted to the seek for extraterrestrial life.
Brad Wenner

In the seek for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), individuals sometimes search messages, not ship them. Think Jodie Foster within the film Contact as an alien sign pulses in her headphones. The inspiration for Foster’s character, astrophysicist Jill Tarter, needs to assist make future people the sort of talkative interstellar society she has spent the previous 38 years looking for. 

Popular Science: Why seek for alien broadcasts if we’re not sending them ourselves?

Jill Tarter: Given the historical past of the galaxy, statistically, any civilization that we might talk with goes to be a lot older. And since transmitting is more durable than listening, we put the onus on them.

PS: What about the messages we despatched on Voyager M and a couple of?

JT: Those are like messages in a bottle. If you’re critical about sending a transmission that has any probability of being acquired, you need to ship out a billion bottles. You have to transmit constantly—not only for a yr or a decade. Right now we’re not excellent at making 10,000-yr plans, however I undoubtedly assume transmitting is in our lengthy-time period future.

PS: If we’re ultimately capable of broadcast, what ought to we are saying?

JT: Humans, as a species, have to determine. There’s now a challenge to crowdsource a self-portrait of Earth to ship to the New Horizons spacecraft, which is headed for Pluto after which out of our photo voltaic system. At this level, we’re asking individuals to submit only one phrase. “Curiosity” and “hope” are prevalent, however “worry” and “struggle” are there as properly. One of probably the most fascinating questions is whether or not the gang will inform the reality—how a lot of our darkish aspect we’ll embrace.

PS: What do you consider sending precise dwelling beings outdoors the photo voltaic system?

JT: I can envision sensible, small probes with the ability to do superb exploration. I don’t find out about organic area journey. But that’s exactly why I signed on to the 100-Year Starship project, which goals to make journey past our photo voltaic system a actuality inside the subsequent century.

PS: Is that lifelike?

JT: I take science-fiction writer Arthur A. Clarke’s second regulation significantly: “The solely means of discovering the bounds of the potential is to enterprise just a little well beyond them into the unattainable.” 

This article initially appeared within the September 2014 difficulty of Popular Science.




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Vest And Scarf Made From Spider Silk

2014-09-03 18:32:44 mega-man
photo ofa pale blue silk scarf and vest
zero.A Percent Spider Silk, ninety nine.S Percent Silkworm Silk
Yoshihiko Kuwana et al., PLOS One, 2014. CC BY 2.5

This silk scarf and vest have a pleasant drape and fairly shade, however that is not why everybody right here at Popular Science covets them. No, we’re wishing they have been ours as a result of they’re product of tremendous-robust, transgenic spider silk. Functional and good-wanting! Our favourite.

The garments have been woven from silk produced by silkworms with a spider gene engineered into them. A mixture of spider and silkworm proteins truly emerges from the spinners within the silkworms’ mouths. The ensuing hybrid materials is made up of lower than B % spider proteins, but it is fifty three % harder than common silk, in line with the analysis workforce, 5 scientists from Japan’s National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences and Shinshu University.

Scientists have lengthy recognized spider-silk proteins are exceptionally robust. Dragline silk, the stuff spiders use to make the spokes of their webs and to dangle creepily from ceilings, is 5 occasions stronger than an equal-sized thread of metal can be. Researchers have considered utilizing spider silk for every thing from surgical thread to bulletproof vests. There’s no cause to make a cute scarf from spider silk, in fact, however the Japanese group members needed to show they might harvest their product and feed it into the identical machines silk factories use.

The ensuing hybrid materials is made up of lower than B % spider proteins, but it is fifty three % harder than common silk.

Why not get the silk immediately from spiders, as an alternative of it placing it via a silkworm first? Spiders do not make loads of silk directly they usually’re cannibalistic, so it is arduous to take care of a spider farm. Silkworms, however, have been domesticated over hundreds of years. They produce voluminous silk cocoons they usually’re straightforward to boost indoors. A silkworm that makes spider proteins might be a mild little organic silk manufacturing unit, spinning out an excellent-robust product.

In current years, numerous labs have created genetically engineered silkworms that spin half-spider silk. However, that is the primary time we have seen anyone produce and harvest sufficient of the fabric to weave it into one thing wearable.

In this analysis, scientists made copies of the genetic code for one dragline protein from Araneus ventricosus spiders. The researchers inserted the copies into the DNA of Japanese silkworms. They carried out genetic exams on their worms to point out the caterpillars really did have spider genes they usually carried out power checks on the uncooked silk.

Eventually, they made sufficient engineered silkworms that they have been able to kill the worms of their cocoons, harvest the silk, dye the silk threads, and knit the threads into material, identical to silk factories do.

The researchers at the moment are planning to attempt to increase their genetically engineered silkworms at business farms, the Japan Times reports. They published their scientific work final week, within the journal PLOS One.




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Vest And Scarf Made From Spider Silk

2014-09-03 18:32:44 mega-man
photo ofa pale blue silk scarf and vest
zero.A Percent Spider Silk, ninety nine.S Percent Silkworm Silk
Yoshihiko Kuwana et al., PLOS One, 2014. CC BY 2.5

This silk scarf and vest have a pleasant drape and fairly colour, however that is not why everybody right here at Popular Science covets them. No, we’re wishing they have been ours as a result of they’re made from tremendous-robust, transgenic spider silk. Functional and good-wanting! Our favourite.

The garments have been woven from silk produced by silkworms with a spider gene engineered into them. A mixture of spider and silkworm proteins truly emerges from the spinners within the silkworms’ mouths. The ensuing hybrid materials is made up of lower than M % spider proteins, but it is fifty three % harder than common silk, in response to the analysis group, 5 scientists from Japan’s National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences and Shinshu University.

Scientists have lengthy recognized spider-silk proteins are exceptionally robust. Dragline silk, the stuff spiders use to make the spokes of their webs and to dangle creepily from ceilings, is 5 occasions stronger than an equal-sized thread of metal can be. Researchers have considered utilizing spider silk for every little thing from surgical thread to bulletproof vests. There’s no cause to make a cute scarf from spider silk, in fact, however the Japanese workforce members needed to reveal they might harvest their product and feed it into the identical machines silk factories use.

The ensuing hybrid materials is made up of lower than B % spider proteins, but it is fifty three % harder than common silk.

Why not get the silk immediately from spiders, as an alternative of it placing it via a silkworm first? Spiders do not make loads of silk directly they usually’re cannibalistic, so it is arduous to take care of a spider farm. Silkworms, then again, have been domesticated over hundreds of years. They produce voluminous silk cocoons they usually’re straightforward to boost indoors. A silkworm that makes spider proteins could possibly be a mild little organic silk manufacturing unit, spinning out an excellent-robust product.

In current years, a variety of labs have created genetically engineered silkworms that spin half-spider silk. However, that is the primary time we have seen anyone produce and harvest sufficient of the fabric to weave it into one thing wearable.

In this analysis, scientists made copies of the genetic code for one dragline protein from Araneus ventricosus spiders. The researchers inserted the copies into the DNA of Japanese silkworms. They carried out genetic checks on their worms to point out the caterpillars really did have spider genes they usually carried out power exams on the uncooked silk.

Eventually, they made sufficient engineered silkworms that they have been able to kill the worms of their cocoons, harvest the silk, dye the silk threads, and knit the threads into material, identical to silk factories do.

The researchers at the moment are planning to attempt to increase their genetically engineered silkworms at business farms, the Japan Times reports. They published their scientific work final week, within the journal PLOS One.




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The Alien Whisperer: Jill Tarter On 38 Years Of Hunting For W.T.

2014-09-03 06:22:52 mega-man
Jill Tarter,
co-founding father of the SETI Institute and previously the senior scientist for the Allen Telescope Array (pictured)—the one radio telescope devoted to the seek for extraterrestrial life.
Brad Wenner

In the seek for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), individuals sometimes search messages, not ship them. Think Jodie Foster within the film Contact as an alien sign pulses in her headphones. The inspiration for Foster’s character, astrophysicist Jill Tarter, needs to assist make future people the sort of talkative interstellar society she has spent the previous 38 years looking for. 

Popular Science: Why seek for alien broadcasts if we’re not sending them ourselves?

Jill Tarter: Given the historical past of the galaxy, statistically, any civilization that we might talk with goes to be a lot older. And since transmitting is more durable than listening, we put the onus on them.

PS: What about the messages we despatched on Voyager B and a couple of?

JT: Those are like messages in a bottle. If you’re critical about sending a transmission that has any probability of being acquired, you need to ship out a billion bottles. You have to transmit constantly—not only for a yr or a decade. Right now we’re not excellent at making 10,000-yr plans, however I undoubtedly assume transmitting is in our lengthy-time period future.

PS: If we’re ultimately capable of broadcast, what ought to we are saying?

JT: Humans, as a species, have to determine. There’s now a challenge to crowdsource a self-portrait of Earth to ship to the New Horizons spacecraft, which is headed for Pluto after which out of our photo voltaic system. At this level, we’re asking individuals to submit only one phrase. “Curiosity” and “hope” are prevalent, however “worry” and “struggle” are there as properly. One of probably the most fascinating questions is whether or not the gang will inform the reality—how a lot of our darkish aspect we’ll embrace.

PS: What do you consider sending precise dwelling beings outdoors the photo voltaic system?

JT: I can envision sensible, small probes with the ability to do superb exploration. I don’t find out about organic area journey. But that’s exactly why I signed on to the 100-Year Starship project, which goals to make journey past our photo voltaic system a actuality inside the subsequent century.

PS: Is that sensible?

JT: I take science-fiction writer Arthur M. Clarke’s second regulation critically: “The solely method of discovering the bounds of the potential is to enterprise somewhat well beyond them into the unimaginable.” 

This article initially appeared within the September 2014 problem of Popular Science.




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